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Ancient Greece



The Greek city-state among other facilities provided 
the body of citizens included and free medical 
care. The Public doctors were paid by local governments 
usually on an annual basis to provide the required medical 
treatments to patients as appropriate. 
The provision of public medical care was considered as something given to 
the legislators. So far there is no evidence that 
due to the legislative work of Solon, which advocates 
oldest establishment of this institution. 
The doctors mentioned by Homer as a special category of people 
(Homer, Odyssey, xvii ,382-384) and Plato ranked in the lower 
class of craftsmen (Plato, Gorgias, 445b). Diodorus Siculus 
rescues an order of the legislature Charon who had ordered all 
Without exception, the individuals receive care physician 
paid at public expense (Diodorus Siculus, xii.13). For the case 
Athens of classical times indirect information provided by 
the works of Aristophanes. 
The Dikaiopolis in the comedy of Aristophanes' Acharneis "urged the poor and blind 
Farmer to visit the famous surgeon Pittalo (Aristophanes, Acharnians 1027-1032) 
while at work "Wasps" is misolipothymos Lamachos requesting a government surgeon 
(Aristophanes, Wasps 1432). 
Commentators say that the "civil surgeon" elected to public methods and offered 
medical services without payment (Suidas sv, Scholiast ad Aristoph. Acharn. 1030). 
H reference to this specific group of doctors were under the following conditions: 
The public doctor, the promulgator doctor, the public and the physician. 
In Roman times are known with the terminology "head physician".



The annual salary of a government doctor in 
cities of Classical Greece must 
ranged at about 500 drachmas in 
following centuries, their pay increased 
in astronomical payments eg the Asklipiadis 
from Perge in the 2nd century BC received 1000 
Dr the Aegean city of Seleucia in 
Pamphylia. In many cases public 
Doctors create properties such as doctors 
Delphi Filistos who offered the 
3rd century BC as a donation to the birthplace of Kos
the sum of 4,000 drachmas to cover 
military spending.



A t start the "Doctor" should have been a little 
private room with equipment, in the era of Galen 
(Second century AD) but the room had just become 
in older buildings equipped than state funds. 
Physicians, by creating large hospitals 
(Mainly military) visited the 
patients at home.   Those who were asked to choose 
doctors in public places of the city are not 
others were from residents through direct voting. 
The candidate was not a doctor but 
convince the voters for their unique 
talents and exceptional abilities. 
This does not mean that the elected physician was the most excellent or better 
from private doctors. 
According to Plato, the doctors Candidates for public office had before the election 
to warrant the best way their candidacy to be elected 
(Plato, Gorgias, 514d) and elsewhere in the project, Socrates having identified the potential 
risk from such a subjective choice argues that even a lawyer with the appropriate 
speech could be elected to this office (Plato, Gorgias, 456b).


I n any case, voters knew

them falls the responsibility of the election which is not

leaves unremarked Xenophon (Xenophon

Cyropaedia I, 6,15). In the similar commentary is underway and the

Cynic philosopher Telis who in his

"On the flight" without equivocation load responsibility

whoever the wrong choice (shame) public

doctor to voters. The doctors were present

all public events such as festivals and 
particularly in sports games so they can directly

transferors to treat athletes with injury. 
Also public doctors had specific tasks as 
medical surveillance of groups of "Teen" 
during their military training and service.

All groups of teenagers had military public doctors a timeless institution

true today in any organized army. Regarding the importance of military doctors

Greeks since Homeric times were aware of the irreplaceable services

and for this reason had been removed from daily chores and warfare

to devote themselves to the restoration work (Diodorus Siculus, iv, 71). The doctors both

public and private was organized in clubs around the cult of Asclepius.

In Athens, the temple of Asclepius were on the south side of the Acropolis.



In ccording to Herodotus, the most popular doctor

before Hippocrates was Dimokidis of Croton  

(Herodotus, iii, 131). Originally moved to Aegina

the second year of his stay on the island was

the office of public recognition of the physician

skills from the locals. In the third year

the state as a physician hired by the Athenians

offering the same salary. Then

the tyrant of Samos Polycrates climate rivalry 
the Greek cities hired

Dimokidi with an annual salary of two talents a year. 
The brilliant career

the Dimokidi made ​​him the most popular physician of the Greek world and gave

the birthplace of his legacy that offers the best doctors. Many are

physicians in the profession do not hesitate to travel across the length

and widths of the Greek world to offer their services several times

even under adverse conditions which have responded with remarkable spirit

selflessness. The doctor Damiadas from Sparta, he served after a public vote

doctor in the town of Gytheion for two years and show unwavering personal and

professional conduct. When the city of Gytheion due to poor economic situation

could not gather the required annual payroll, the Damiadas refused

payable for the year. For this sacrifice, the city honored him with the titles

the "Consul" and "benefactor." The Menokritos o Samios served the town of Karpathos

for 20 years (Inscription, I.G. xii, i, 1032, second century BC).



B efore this offering unpaid services

the city of Rhodes. Great was the goodness of

in his hometown of Kos where, among other

exploits during the siege of the city

by Phillip U (Polybius, iii, 2, 8; Appian, Macedonica, 4)

o Menokritos by taking as a starting unselfishness and his own

the personal expenses perielthapte indiscriminately from

morning till evening the injured

fellow citizens. In Lamia, the son of Mitrodorou

Andromeni helped everyone who asked for help in

without receiving payment (Inscription.IG ix, ii, 69, second

century BC). O Apollonius of Miletus, although not

a public doctor volunteered to serve as

such on the island of Tinos in a difficult for the city

period, and agreed not to accept a salary for

first six months. But when a new calamity (famine) followed the island have not abandoned

but continued to sacrifice and selflessness to cure or relieve. A doctor by Herms

Kos will surprise everyone in self-sacrifice to relieve the wounded soldiers and

from two fronts in the war that broke out between Gortyn and Knossos at the end of the third

century BC Cities recognized it their offer and honored accordingly. The gifts they

have been both material eg crown of gold, oil and money gifts eg naturalization and

titlodosia as "Consul" and "benefactor." The city of Elatia in Phocis in memory and

in gratitude to the person's doctor Asklipiodorou from Kos, gave

privileges for those physicians whose name began with the first-Askl .O Asklipiodoros not only

had helped the sick of Elatia and gave a series of public lectures on

the public health (Supplementum Epigraphicum Graecum, III, 416, second century BC).

The Delphi 235p.Ch will exempt the doctor Filisto and descendants of any

including taxes including tax on the NHS. The exemption

This was necessary as a gesture of gratitude to the valuable services of doctor of Delphi

offered without exception, both locals and pilgrims. In the city of Corinth

City will honor the public doctor Satyr (Inscriptions of Cos 409, second sentury BC)



T he Greek doctors because of the spirit and selflessness

high sense of duty offered their services

those who needed them, without exception, with help

social and economic classes of people. Slaves

they were integrated in the program of medical assistance.

For them, the boss had to pay a special

persons 'medical'. The honorary column in the municipality of Gytheion

in honor of Damiadi praising his contribution which

directed to all indiscriminately as perielthapte poor

rich, slave and free. Plato left just

responsibility of slaves to their masters without commenting

more (Plato, Laws, 720 be). The action exceeded

the human race and extended to animals, especially

domesticated. The Mitrodorou reported by residents

Lamia as "Medic". Scrolls From the Hellenistic Egypt is known a

special tax designed to pay the "ippiatrikon» (Pap.Hideh ,45,257-256 BC) a

tax's existence continued until at least the fourth century. special interest

noteworthy is the case of Hellenistic Ptolemaic Egypt. Because of

expanded bureaucracy of the state every movement of public doctors were defined by

details on protocol. The public should first doctor to act in accordance with

written advice of his colleagues which functioned as guides treatment

diseases. In the case that although compliance with the directives and appropriate treatment,

the patient passed away the doctor relieved from further liability for error search

handlings. Otherwise the doctor prosecuted if appropriate

penalties (Diodorus Siculus, i, 82; 12). Aristotle says that the doctor could

act at will only after three days of treatment consistent with the

existing written instructions. After this time if the proceedings had been brought

no visible result could follow his own personal therapy

(Aristotle, Politics, 1286a). In Egypt, the minister who had shouldered the smooth functioning

the public health service has brought the title "to doctors' such as

The Chrysermos from Alexandria, son of Heraclitus and blood relative of

King Ptolemy VI [Inscription.Orientis Graeci Inscriptiones Selectae (OGIS), 104, reing

of Ptolemy VI (I81-146) BC from Delos].


IT Asklepieio Voulas
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